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Second, images were processed by the successive iterative restoration method where projection data were generated from reconstructed image in sequence. Besides the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm OS-EM was examined. Also, small region of interest ROI setting and reverse processing were applied for improving performance.

Both algorithms reduced artifacts instead of slightly decreasing gray levels. Sequential and reverse processing did not show apparent effects. Two alternatives in iterative reconstruction methods were effective for artifact reduction. All rights reserved. Microchannel plate streak camera. An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras.

The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons UV to gamma-rays than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode.

Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for KeV x-rays. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses. A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses.

Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event.

The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam. Cosmic x ray physics. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies. The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies. Skull x-ray. X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray Radiography of skull, chest, and cervical spine - diagnostic.

Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Abdomen X-Ray Radiography. What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray radiograph is a noninvasive Abdominal x-ray. National Library of Medicine Rockville Pike, X-ray image. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. Structures that are dense such as bone will block most of the x-ray particles, and will appear white.

Metal and contrast media X-Ray Toolkit. Used in operation of commercial x-ray scanners and manipulation of x-ray images for emergency responders including State, Local, Federal, and US Military bomb technicians and analysts. X-Ray Lasers. Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development.

Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. Sinus x-ray. Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses Or the x-ray may be taken Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. X-ray ptychography. X-ray ptychographic microscopy combines the advantages of raster scanning X-ray microscopy with the more recently developed techniques of coherent diffraction imaging.

It is limited neither by the fabricational challenges associated with X-ray optics nor by the requirements of isolated specimen preparation, and offers in principle wavelength-limited resolution, as well as stable access and solution to the phase problem. In this Review, we discuss the basic principles of X-ray ptychography and summarize the main milestones in the evolution of X-ray ptychographic microscopy and tomography over the past ten years, since its first demonstration with X-rays.

We also highlight the potential for applications in the life and materials sciences, and discuss the latest advanced concepts and probable future developments. X-ray lasers. Theoretical and practical aspects of X-ray lasers are discussed in an introduction emphasizing recent advances.

Chapters are devoted to the unique optical properties of the X-ray spectral region, the principles of short-wavelength lasers, pumping by exciting plasma ions, pumping by electron capture into excited ionic states, pumping by ionization of atoms and ions, and alternative approaches. The potential scientific, technical, biological, and medical applications of X-ray lasers are briefly characterized. X-ray binaries. Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed.

Contact x-ray microscopy using Asterix. The use of a high energy laser source for soft x-ray contact microscopy is discussed. Several different targets were used and their emission spectra compared. The x-ray emission, inside and outside the Water Window, was characterized in detail by means of many diagnostics, including pin hole and streak cameras.

Up to 12 samples holders per shot were exposed thanks to the large x-ray flux and the geometry of the interaction chamber. Images of several biological samples were obtained, including Chlamydomonas and Crethidia green algae, fish and boar sperms and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells. A 50 nm resolution was reached on the images of boar sperm. Original information concerning the density of inner structures of Crethidia green algae were obtained.

For some types of X-ray tests, a contrast medium — such as iodine or barium — is introduced into your body to provide greater detail on the images. Why it's done X-ray technology is used to examine many parts of the X-ray Spectrometry. Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late to late Literature examined focuses on: excitation photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry ; instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical….

X-ray beamsplitter. An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane.

The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. The support membrane is nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. X-ray generator. Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays.

The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays.

In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays , whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms.

Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays. X-ray crystallography. X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray , which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal.

The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure.

The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body.

This is called structure-based drug design. X-ray superbubbles. All four regions share certain features, indicating a common structure. The selection effects which determine the observable X-ray properties of the superbubbles are discussed, and it is demonstrated that only a very few more in our Galaxy can be detected in X rays. X-ray observation of extragalactic superbubbles is shown to be possible but requires the capabilities of a large, high quality, AXAF class observatory.

X-ray laser. An X-ray laser 10 that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i. The laser comprises a silicon 12 and dysprosium 14 foil combination 16 that is driven by two beams 18, 20 of intense line focused 22, 24 optical laser radiation.

Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions 34 are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens. Thoracic spine x-ray. Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray ; Spine x-ray ; Thoracic spine films; Back films The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office.

You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray Lumbosacral spine x-ray. X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray Hand x-ray.

About MedlinePlus Site Map Chest X-Ray. MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools. For more information about chest x-rays , visit Radiology Info dot To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking Pelvis x-ray. X-ray - pelvis Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs Bone x-ray. Why the Test is Performed A bone x-ray This final report covers the period 1 January - 31 March It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies.

Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. X-Ray Laser. Strauss, P. Amendt, N A 39 11 , Strauss and N. A 40 12 , X-ray diffraction from shock-loaded polycrystals. X-ray diffraction was demonstrated from shock-compressed polycrystalline metals on nanosecond time scales.

Laser ablation was used to induce shock waves in polycrystalline foils of Be, microm thick. A second laser pulse was used to generate a plasma x-ray source by irradiation of a Ti foil. The x-ray source was collimated to produce a beam of controllable diameter, which was directed at the Be sample.

X-rays were diffracted from the sample, and detected using films and x-ray streak cameras. The diffraction angle was observed to change with shock pressure. The diffraction angles were consistent with the uniaxial elastic and isotropic plastic compressions expected for the loading conditions used. Polycrystalline diffraction will be used to measure the response of the crystal lattice to high shock pressures and through phase changes. X-ray Reflection.

Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx.

We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars. Panoramic Dental X-Ray. X-ray beam finder. An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

X-ray astronomical spectroscopy. The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction.

Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays.

The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays. Planetary X ray experiment.

Design studies for an X-ray experiment using solid state detectors and for an experiment using a proportional counter for investigating Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheres are reported. Background counting rates through the forward aperture and leakage fluxes are discussed for each design. It is concluded that the best choice of instrument appears to have following the characteristics: 1 two separate multiwire proportional counters for redundancy; 2 passive collimation to restrict the field to about 5 deg, wiregrid modulation collimation to about 0.

X-Ray Vision. Ramsey, B. We are fabricating optics for the hard- x-ray region using electroless nickel replication. The attraction of this process, which has been widely used elsewhere, is that the resulting full shell optics are inherently stable and thus can have very good angular resolution. The challenge with this process is to develop lightweight optics nickel has a relatively high density of 8. We accomplished the former through the development of high-strength nickel alloys that permit very thin shells without fabrication- and handling-induced deformations.

For the latter, we have utilized inexpensive grinding and diamond turning to figure the mandrels and then purpose-built polishing machines to finish the surface. In-house plating tanks and a simple water-bath separation system complete the process.

To date we have built shells ranging in size from 5 cm diameter to 50 cm, and with thickness down to micron. For our HERO balloon program, we are fabricating over iridium-coated shells, microns thick, for hard- x-ray imaging up to 75 keV. Early test results on these have indicated half-power-diameters of 15 arcsec. The status of these and other hard- x-ray optics will be reviewed. X-Ray Astronomy. Zhang has lead a seven member group Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr.

Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting.

These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

X-ray lithography masking. Smith, Henry I. X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane.

A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

X-ray Crystallography Facility. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal. X-Ray Exam: Hip. X-Ray Exam: Forearm. X-Ray Exam: Ankle. X-Ray Exam: Foot. X-Ray Exam: Wrist. X-Ray Exam: Finger. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis. Tunable X-ray source. A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray , beams through the use of Thomson scattering.

X-ray satellite. An overview of the second quarter development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

SMM x ray polychromator. The objective of the X-ray Polychromator XRP experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time.

The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions. SMM X ray polychromator. X-ray lithography source. A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of eV to 3 keV.

Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray -beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray -beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself.

Composite x-ray pinholes for time-resolved microphotography of laser compressed targets. Composite x-ray pinholes having dichroic properties are presented. These pinholes permit both x-ray imaging and visible alignment with micron accuracy by presenting different apparent apertures in these widely disparate regions of the spectrum. Their use is mandatory in certain applications in which the x-ray detection consists of a limited number of resolvable elements whose use one wishes to maximize.

Mating the pinhole camera with an x-ray streaking camera is described, along with experiments which spatially and temporally resolve the implosion of laser irradiated targets. Femtosecond profiling of shaped x-ray pulses. Hoffmann, M. Arbitrary manipulation of the temporal and spectral properties of x-ray pulses at free-electron lasers would revolutionize many experimental applications.

At the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory, the momentum phase-space of the free-electron laser driving electron bunch can be tuned to emit a pair of x-ray pulses with independently variable photon energy and femtosecond delay.

However, while accelerator parameters can easily be adjusted to tune the electron bunch phase-space, the final impact of these actuators on the x-ray pulse cannot be predicted with sufficient precision. Furthermore, shot-to-shot instabilities that distort the pulse shape unpredictably cannot be fully suppressed.

Therefore, the ability to directly characterize the x-rays is essential to ensure precise and consistent control. In this work, we have generated x-ray pulse pairs via electron bunch shaping and characterized them on a single-shot basis with femtosecond resolution through time-resolved photoelectron streaking spectroscopy. This achievement completes an important step toward future x-ray pulse shaping techniques.

Furthermore, this achievement completes an important step toward future x-ray pulse shaping techniques. Miniature x-ray source. A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru.

At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications. Topological X-Rays Revisited. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without….

Intensity correlation measurement system by picosecond single shot soft x-ray laser. We developed a new soft x-ray speckle intensity correlation spectroscopy system by use of a single shot high brilliant plasma soft x-ray laser. We developed a Michelson type delay pulse generator using a soft x-ray beam splitter to measure the intensity correlation of x-ray speckles from materials and succeeded in generating double coherent x-ray pulses with picosecond delay times.

Moreover, we employed a high-speed soft x-ray streak camera for the picosecond time-resolved measurement of x-ray speckles caused by double coherent x-ray pulse illumination. We performed the x-ray speckle intensity correlation measurements for probing the relaxation phenomena of polarizations in polarization clusters in the paraelectric phase of the ferroelectric material BaTiO 3 near its Curie temperature and verified its performance.

X-ray based extensometry. A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over F.

Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation.

The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible.

The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles NASP all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude.

Here, we review previous and current x-ray -telescope missions. We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas about 10, sq m of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional about 0. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus. An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced.

The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

X-ray shearing interferometer. An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface.

The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams. Correction of absorption-edge artifacts in polychromatic X-ray tomography in a scanning electron microscope for 3D microelectronics.

Laloum, D. X-ray tomography is widely used in materials science. However, X-ray scanners are often based on polychromatic radiation that creates artifacts such as dark streaks. We show this artifact is not always due to beam hardening. It may appear when scanning samples with high-Z elements inside a low-Z matrix because of the high-Z element absorption edge: X-rays whose energy is above this edge are strongly absorbed, violating the exponential decay assumption for reconstruction algorithms and generating dark streaks.

A method is proposed to limit the absorption edge effect and is applied on a microelectronic case to suppress dark streaks between interconnections. X-ray monitoring optical elements. An X-ray article and method for analyzing hard X-rays which have interacted with a test system. The X-ray article is operative to diffract or otherwise process X-rays from an input X-ray beam which have interacted with the test system and at the same time provide an electrical circuit adapted to collect photoelectrons emitted from an X-ray optical element of the X-ray article to analyze features of the test system.

Low-density foam liners are being investigated as sources of efficient x-rays. Understanding the laser-foam interaction is key to modeling and optimizing foam composition and density for x-ray production with reduced backscatter. The foam liners consist of polyimide tubes filled with low-density foams and sealed with a gold foil at one end.

A full aperture backscatter system is used to diagnose the coupled energy and losses. A streaked x-ray camera and filtered x-ray pinhole cameras are used to measure laser penetration into the low-density foam for different mass densities. A HOPG crystal spectrometer is used to estimate a thermal electron temperature. Comparisons with beam propagation and x-ray emission simulations are presented. X-Ray Imaging System. The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects.

It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable. X-ray scattering study. A soft X-ray glancing incidence telescope mirror and a group of twelve optical flat samples were used to study the scattering of X-rays.

The mirror was made of Kanigen coated beryllium and the images produced were severely limited by scattering of X-rays. The best resolution attained was about fifteen arc seconds. The telescope efficiency was found to be 0. The X-ray beam reflected from the twelve optical flat samples was analyzed by means of a long vacuum system of special design for these tests.

The scattering then decreased with increasing angle of incidence until a critical angle was passed. At larger angles the scattering increased again. The samples all scattered more at 44 A than at 8 A. Metal samples were found to have about the same scattering at 44 A but greater scattering at 8 A than glass samples. Bone X-Ray Radiography. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.

See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies.

The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru.

At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride. Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra is named afterSubramanian Chandrasekhar, known as Chandra, andauthor of the Chandrasekhar limit. Chandra hasbeen extremely successful and produc The current status of the X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources, ranging from nearby stars to distant quasars, is reviewed.

Particular emphasis is placed on the role of such spectroscopy as a useful and unique tool in the elucidation of the physical parameters of the sources. The spectroscopic analysis of degenerate and nondegenerate stellar systems, galactic clusters and active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants is discussed.

Electromechanical x-ray generator. An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap.

The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube. X-ray Sensitive Material. The research resulted in a composite material that holds a quasi-permanent electric charge and rapidly discharges the electric charge upon X-ray The composite material combined the properties of an Schematic of Circuit for.

Cosmic X-ray physics. A progress report of research activities carried out in the area of cosmic X-ray physics is presented. The observation times proved to be too small for meaningful X-ray data to be obtained. The Be band measurements provide an important constraint on local absorption of X-rays from the hot component of the local interstellar medium.

Work has also continued on the development of a calorimetric detector for high-resolution spectroscopy in the 0. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine. An X-ray technician takes the X-rays. Usually, three different pictures Procedure Although the procedure may take up to X-Rays , Pregnancy and You. During most Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses. Hartmann, N. The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons.

The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far.

X-ray angiography systems. Despite the emergence of several alternative angiographic imaging techniques i. In this issue, we provide a brief overview of the various angiographic imaging techniques, comparing them with x-ray angiography, and discuss the clinical aspects of x-ray vascular imaging, including catheterization and clinical applications. Clinical, cost, usage, and legal issues related to contrast media are discussed in "Contrast Media: Ionic versus Nonionic and Low-osmolality Agents.

Our ratings are based on the systems' ability to provide the best possible image quality for diagnosis and therapy while minimizing patient and personnel exposure to radiation, as well as its ability to minimize operator effort and inconvenience. Both units are rated Acceptable. In the Guidance Section, "Radiation Safety and Protection," we discuss the importance of keeping patient and personnel exposures to radiation as low as reasonably possible, especially in procedures such as cardiac catheterization, angiographic imaging for special procedures.

X-ray Echo Spectroscopy. X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering IXS probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals.

The defocused image is refocused into a point echo in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays , ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution.

Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. X-ray Timing Measurements. The temporal baseline for both objects is approximately 12 years, and our measurements confirm the secular spin-up in their X-ray periods. The spin-up rate in is remarkably uniform at 3.

The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster.

The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen.

Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published. Coherent x-ray diffraction.

Conventional x-ray diffraction has historically been done under conditions such that the measured signal consists of an incoherent addition of scattering which is coherent only on a length scale determined by the properties of the beam.

The result of the incoherent summation is a statistical averaging over the whole illuminated volume of the sample, which yields certain kinds of information with a high degree of precision and has been key to the success of x-ray diffraction in a variety of applications. Coherent x-ray scattering techniques, such as coherent x-ray diffraction CXD and x-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy XIFS , attempt to reduce or eliminate any incoherent averaging so that specific, local structures couple to the measurement without being averaged out.

In the case of XIFS, the result is analogous to dynamical light scattering, but with sensitivity to length scales less than nm and time scales from s to s. When combined with phase retrieval, CXD represents an imaging technique with the penetration, in situ capabilities, and contrast mechanisms associated with x-rays and with a spatial resolution ultimately limited by the x-ray wavelength.

In practice, however, the spatial resolution of CXD imaging is limited by exposure to about A. This thesis describes CXD measurements of the binary alloy Cu3Au and the adaptation of phase retrieval methods for the reconstruction of real-space images of Cu3Au antiphase domains. The theoretical foundations of CXD are described in Chapter 1 as derived from the kinematical formulation for x-ray diffraction and from the temporal and spatial coherence of radiation.

The antiphase domain structure of Cu 3Au is described, along with the associated reciprocal-space structure which is measured by CXD. CXD measurements place relatively stringent requirements on the coherence properties of the beam and on the detection mechanism of the experiment; these requirements and the means by which they have been.

X-Rays from Pluto. As New Horizons approached Pluto in late and then flew by the planet during the summer of , Chandra obtained data during four separate observations. During each observation, Chandra detected low-energy X-rays from the small planet. The main panel in this graphic is an optical image taken from New Horizons on its approach to Pluto, while the inset shows an image of Pluto in X-rays from Chandra. There is a significant difference in scale between the optical and X-ray images.

New Horizons made a close flyby of Pluto but Chandra is located near the Earth, so the level of detail visible in the two images is very different. The Chandra image is , miles across at the distance of Pluto, but the planet is only 1, miles across. Pluto is detected in the X-ray image as a point source, showing the sharpest level of detail available for Chandra or any other X-ray observatory. This means that details over scales that are smaller than the X-ray source cannot be seen here.

Detecting X-rays from Pluto is a somewhat surprising result given that Pluto - a cold, rocky world without a magnetic field - has no natural mechanism for emitting X-rays. However, scientists knew from previous observations of comets that the interaction between the gases surrounding such planetary bodies and the solar wind - the constant streams of charged particles from the sun that speed throughout the solar system -- can create X-rays.

The researchers were particularly interested in learning more about the interaction between the gases in Pluto's atmosphere and the solar wind. The New Horizon spacecraft carries an instrument designed to measure that activity up-close -- Solar Wind Around Pluto SWAP -- and scientists examined that data and proposed that Pluto contains a very mild, close-in bowshock, where the solar wind first. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry. Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes.

The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams.

Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

X-Ray Diffractive Optics. X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares.

They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.

Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. DDL and tested at the Goddard microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved. Focused X-ray source. An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source as compared to a synchrotron emitter for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source as compared to a synchrotron emitter for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. Rontgen's Discovery of X Rays. Relates the story of Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and presents one view of the extent to which the discovery of the x-ray was an accident.

Reconstructs the sequence of events that led to the discovery and includes photographs of the lab where he worked and replicas of apparatus used. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer. Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer APX for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils.

The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent. Compact x-ray source and panel. A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other.

The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target.

A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target.

The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

X-rays only when you want them: optimized pump—probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation. PubMed Central. Hertlein, M. Laser pump— X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported.

Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shot X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device CCD camera are also demonstrated.

X-rays only when you want them: Optimized pump—probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation. Biondi, Jr. Vance D. Rebecca M. Gilbert S. Discrimination based on Sexual. Orientation and Gender Identity. Stockholder in Contested Election of.

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Holdings Ltd. Final Dividend of JPY Calculations of Performance-Based Pay. Prior, Jr. Statements and Statutory Reports. Dividends of EUR 0. Regarding Related-Party Transactions. Henri de Castries, Denis Duverne, and. Francois Pierson. Henri de Castries. Denis Duverne. Supervisory Board Member.

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Luke, Jr. Change-in-Control to Shareholder Vote. Statutory Reports for Year Ended 31 May. Auditors and Authorise Board to Fix. Percent of Issued Ordinary Share. Directors for the Ensuing Year. Authorised But Unissued Ordinary Shares. Issued Ordinary Share Capital. Statutory Reports for Fiscal Supervisory Board.

Electronic Voting and Voting Right. Representation at General Meeting due. Transposition of EU Shareholder's Right. Management Board Members. Bavaria Wirtschaftsagentur GmbH. Anlagen Verwaltungs GmbH. Bank GmbH. Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH. Forschung und Technik GmbH.

Leasing GmbH. M GmbH. Verwaltungs GmbH. To Cover Losses. Glimcher, M. Sato, Ph. West, Jr. Applicable to Common Stock. Applicable to Preferred Stock. Use and Testing. Bolden, Jr. Lauraguais as Director. Auditors and Authorize Board to Fix. Carter, Jr. Issuance of Convertible Bonds by Up to.

Rights; Issuance of Convertible. Instruments will be Carried Out within. Statutory Reports for Fiscal Year Report; Present Reports of Audit and. Corporate Practices Committees, Receive. Report on Tax Obligations. Retained Profits Account. Treasury Shares to be Subscribed. Through a Public Offer with Intention.

Accordance with Resolutions Adopted on. Finance Committees. Members of the Audit, Corporate. Practices and Finance Committees. First Clause of Issuance Transaction. April 29, Environmental Qualifications. Committee on Human Rights. Preemptive Rights. Related Party and the Related Annual. From the After-Tax Profit. Interim Profit Distribution Plan for. Domestic and Overseas Auditors,. Respectively, and Authorize Board to. Loans Held by Sinopec International. Petroleum Exploration and Production.

Proposed Plan for Issuance of Debt. Financing Instruments. Shares Convertible Corporate Bonds. Convertible Corporate Bonds. Issuance of the A Shares Convertible.

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Finocchiaro, Thomas Koefer, R. Herranz Gracia, Mercedes Hameyer, Kay. Schlensok, Christoph Hameyer, Kay. V, Starschich, Ewgenij Muetze, Annette. Schulte, Stephan Hameyer, Kay. Schlensok, Christoph van der Giet, A. Herranz Gracia, A. Schlensok, C. Wiak; M.

Dems and K. Henneberger, Gerhard. Gracia, M. Kaehler, Christian Henneberger, Gerhard. Monzel, C. Kaehler, C. Schlensok, Christoph Henneberger, Gerhard. Dular, P. Hameyer, Kay Henneberger, Gerhard. Schulte, S. EMF Symposium Sande, H. Blissenbach, R. Deihimi, A. Farhangi, S. Popella, Hartmut Henneberger, Gerhard.

Monzel, Christoph Henneberger, Gerhard. Pantelyat, M. Gontarowsky, Pawel P. Pantelyat, Michael G. Sponsored by China Electrotechnical Society. Cai, J. Blissenbach, Rolf Henneberger, Gerhard. Bauer, T. Gschwilm, J. Platen, M. Haensel, Jan Hausmann, R. Sebus, R. Weck, E. Reinartz, T. Henneberger, Gerhard de Doncker, Rik W. Bleck, Wolfgang Bruhl, F. Dappen, S. Henneberger, Gerhard Johnen, M. Albertz, D. Arians, G. Mai, Wolfgang Henneberger, Gerhard.

Mai, W. Albertz, Dietmar Henneberger, Gerhard. Brakensiek, Dirk Henneberger, Gerhard. Busch, T. Evers, Wolfgang Henneberger, Gerhard. Henneberger, Gerhard Schneider, J. Schoppa, A. Evers, W. Henneberger, G. Dyck, D. Lowther, D. In cooperation with: the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.. Ramesohl, I. Zickermann, R. Ben Yahia, K. International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control, Wahner, Ulrich Weck, Manfred. Schniedermeyer, M. Lorenz, R. Nagel, N. Bork, M. ETG-Fachforums am Tagungsleitung, D.

Speck [u. Schmitz, M. Henneberger, Gerhard Kuppers, S. Hadrys, W. Hameyer, Kay Belmans, R. April , , [DOI: Belmans, R. Mai , , Pahner, Uwe Dular, P. Robert, F. Remacle, J. Meys, B. Genon, A. Pahner, Uwe de Weerdt, R. Hameyer, Kay Belmans, Ronnie. Mertens, R. Legros, W. Hameyer, Kay Meys, B. April - 3. Mai , Nr. Hameyer, Kay Mertens, R.

Juni , A7, , Renier, B. Juni , C1, , Henneberger, S. Juni , , [DOI: Pahner, Uwe Mertens, R. Dolinar, D. Stumberger, G. Freeman, E. Feng, X. Tuinman, E. East-West Congr. Malfait, A. Reekmans, R. Electrimacs, Vol. Nazaire, IGTE Symp. Mai , Hanitsch, R. Hemead, E. Janssens, N. Belmans, Ronnie van Dommelen, D. Sattler, P. Juni , IEE Coll. Akademie Esslingen, April , Jordan, R. Friedrich, T. Electric Vehicle Symp. Kahlen, K.

Hameyer, Kay Tuinman, E. Henneberger, Gerhard Dappen, S. Henneberger, Gerhard Viorel, Ioan A. Ciorba, R. Henneberger, Gerhard Otto, B. Henneberger, Gerhard Fahimi, B. Moallem, M. Durham , Henneberger, Gerhard Ben Yahia, K. Bremen , Reuber, C. Henneberger, Gerhard Friedrich, T. Nagasaki , Henneberger, Gerhard Reuber, C. Albertz, Dietmar Dappen, S. Sevilla , Henneberger, Gerhard Klepsch, T. Essen , Henneberger, Gerhard Obrecht, Rolf.

Kasper, M. Hameyer, Kay Kost, A. Belmans, Ronnie Rotar, C. Topa, V. Simion, E. Henneberger, Gerhard Domack, S. Berndt, J. Hadji-Minaglou, J. Obrecht, R. Workshop on Electr. Domack, S. Taormina, Italien , Otto, B. Brunsbach, B. Klepsch, T. Grenoble, Frankreich , Paris, Frankreich , Anaheim, Calif. USA , Henneberger, Gerhard Sattler, P.

Shen, D. Henneberger, Gerhard Shen, D. Block, R. Chemnitz , Konf. PCIM Lutter, T. Aachener Kolloq. Miami, Fla. Kempkes, J. Ohsaki, H. Nestler, H. Conraths, H. Hadrys, Wilfried Shen, D. Sindelfingen , ICEM ICEM 92, Key words: Open pension funds, pension societies, behavioral economics, equity premium, diversification, investment limits. Wykres 1. Harroda [Tokarski, , s. Etap IV — etap docelowy. Baar N. Begg D. Friedman M.

Lucas R. Modigliani F. Kurihara ed. Muszalski W. Piasecki R. Romer D. Romer P. Super D. Szumlicz T. Tokarski T. Piasecki red. Welfe W. Proposed changes are supported by the conclusions derived from both the exogenous and endogenous economic growth models. Such system should be based on the transformation of labor resource into the stock of capital. The labor resources, diminishing over time, would be replaced with the concurrently growing capital resources.

Key words: pension system, functions of the pension system, pension system reform, social security, social insurance, household life cycle, household resources. Podstawowe instrumenty sekurytyzacji ryzyka kredytowego tzw. Tempo ich wzrostu jest niezwykle szybkie, na co wskazuje rysunek 2. Rysunek 2. Rysunek 7. Index Euro Stoxx1 Tabela 1. Tabela 3. Lokaty finansowe polskich ubezpieczycieli Wybrane aktywa.

Na poziomie gospodarstwa domowego dyspersja ryzyka jest stosunkowo niewielka. Annual Report — [], CEA. Grace M. Haley J. Kay S. Kugler M. Skipper H. Jr, Kwon J. Statistisches Taschenbuch der Versicherungswirtschaft [], www. The Impact of Insurance Companies on the Capital Market Abstract The importance of the insurance industry grows along with the GDP, as expenditures on any kind of insurance rise systematically faster than economic grow.

Having covered their basic needs, people are more interested in higher-. The collection of insurance premiums leads to ever-higher capital resources managed by the insurers. The money is invested mainly on the capital market providing it with a relatively stable inflow of capital. Such hypothesis seems to be supported by the European statistics. Above-mentioned opinion does not apply to the derivatives market, currency, and credit risk management.

Key words: insurance, capital market, investment, market stabilization. Trzonem reformy jest jednak zmiana sposobu naliczania emerytury. Euro czy emerytury? Wprowadzenie odpowiednich polityk na rynku pracy, takich jak np. Od r. Palacios R. Rostowski J. Rutkowski J.

Samuelson P. The Impact of the Pension System on the Economy Abstract The purpose of this article is to discuss the impact of a pension system on the economy and vice versa. It discusses the basic relationships between the pension system and the labor and capital markets.

Due to its significance, the concept of pension debt and its impact on the public debt is scrutinized. Three elements of the pension debt in Poland are identified — demographic, political, and transition parts — with the latter being the cost associated with the pension reform implemented in


In the presentation will be shown the challenge and the chances for renewing the current curricula, from the point of view of electrical engineering and information technology. Since five years an interdisciplinary team of 12 doctoral candidates and two postdocs performs several basic research projects all under the roof of Lorentz forces.

There are investigated different eddy current testing techniques applied to fluids liquid metals , electrolytes or nonmagnetic solid bodies. The paper will discuss aspects of joint research as well as the challenges of an appropriate educational program in computational engineering for this team.

In this paper we compare three figures of merit for estimating the information content to use it as a criterion for optimizing the placement of sensors. These figures of merit are compared for two sensor networks. In the first network, the sensors are distributed regularly, in the second one the sensors are distributed randomly. The simulation shows that small condition number with respect to the L2-norm can relate to the sensor network which has more information or also to the ones which has less information.

The comparison based on the singular value decay for the two sensor networks. With an increasing number of sensors within vehicles wireless solutions become more interesting in order to reduce manufacturing costs and wiring complexity. Besides that, wireless sensors will enable new applications that are difficult to achieve with wired solutions. A pure wireless solution has to guarantee the same quality of service as traditional wired networks while operating in a rather harsh environment.

This is the most challenging task and therefore a suitable integration of the wireless technology into the existing vehicular networks is needed. In our contribution we discuss different existing networks, their historic development and compare them in order to identify suitable candidates for the mentioned integration. Finally, we present an option to couple Sensor placement should be optimized, so that the information content should be large as possible.

In this paper we compare three figures of merit used to estimate the information content and optimizing of the sensor networks. But a new figure of merit is needed, so that the relationship between the information content and the number of sensor should be clear. Superconductive Electronics makes use of the effects taking place in superconductors and Josephson junctions.

The characteristic frequencies of the resulting circuit elements are - depending on the particular material - in the range of tens to hundreds of GHz. The very low power dissipation of only 0. Functional and complex circuits like microprocessors and analog-to-digital converters for comrnercial and scientific applications have been demonstrated. Recent activities aim at the creation of superconductive computers suited for equipping data centers [2]. In this paper an own developed FDTD simulation environment is employed for antenna analysis of a wireless sensor network for traffic monitoring.

It is investigated how much this specific installation influences radiation properties of the applied commercially available antenna configuration and a parameter analysis is performed. The work describes a sensor system to register traffic-related data as the number, type and speed of the vehicles on a "tactile road".

Besides a strong focus on networked intelligent embedded systems for sensor data acquisition and its collection, the antenna configuration plays a crucial role. These research issues are described, results are explained and illustrated. The talk describes how superconductive digital electronics can be used to improve the usability of superconducting sensors and detectors. As a results, the outstanding sensitivity of such devices becomes available at a system level. Lorentz force eddy current testing is a contactless method to investigate conductive materials regarding the presence of inclusions and defects.

The performance of such a system strongly depends on the applied probe which acts as an electromagnetic field source and sensor at the same time. We propose an optimization strategy to maximize the absolute defect response signal while ensuring technical feasibility. The present study shows that cylindrical magnets should be preferably used for deep lying subsurface defects while Halbach cylinders outperform the latter in case of surface flaws due to a more focal magnetic field.

The presented study shows determinations of expected values of output power on the basis of the spectral description of the excitation PSD. The output power of vibration energy generators for different low-frequency spectral excitations is compared for different spring approaches, i.

Results show that nonlinear springs do not necessarily increase the mean output power. Estimation of functional parameters such as absolute torque, torque ripple or axial forces, are of great interest whilst the design process of a switched reluctance motor drive SRM. Especially the axial construction form was not studied in detail in the past. This paper describes the results and procedure of the so called quasi transient simulation of an SRM, which is based on a nonlinear-magnetic, full field, time efficient and accurate finite element simulation FEM.

Dieser Beitrag stellt hierzu ein neu entwickeltes Softwaretool vor, mit dem eine TI-Messung erstmalig intuitiv und in wenigen Schritten erfolgen kann. Large arrays of superconducting radiation sensors require a multiplexed readout. One implementation of the promising code division multiplexing technique uses current steering switches CSSs , based on superconducting quantum interference devices SQUIDs.

The internal state of this digital logic element is represented by the presence of a magnetic flux quantum, which is destined to control the CSS. In this work, we perform three-dimensional finite element simulations of a solid electrically conducting bar with pre-defined material defects moving across static magnetic field lines of a permanent magnet.

This study is motivated by the novel non-destructive testing technique called Lorentz force eddy current testing LET , which is based on the measurement of the Lorentz forces acting on the magnet. In particular, we perform parametric studies to quantify the effect of various parameters on perturbations of the Lorentz force, such as: defect depth, testing speed, electrical conductivity, and magnet position.

The analyses provide reference results to understand the feasibility and testing capabilities of LET. The experimental validation of the numerical results is presented as well. Keywords: Finite element method, Lorentz force, nondestructive testing. This paper reports the most recent investigations on the detection of deep lying defects in nonmagnetic materials using Lorentz force eddy current testing LET. Whereas classical eddy current testing techniques are limited due to the frequency dependent skin depth LET is expected to overcome this particular disadvantage by exploiting the induction of eddy currents by moving an electrical conductor in the vicinity of a permanent magnet.

The detection of deep lying defects is examined at relatively high testing velocities and with high spatial resolution. Without target-oriented improvements defects in a depth of up to 6 mm under the surface can be detected and localized. Keywords: Lorentz force eddy current testing, deep Iying defect, permanent magnet, nondestructive testing. This specific field configuration represents a typical problem arising in novel Lorentz force eddy current testing applications.

The proposed technique is based on several model simplifications which enable considerable reduction of the total simulation time while maintaining the accuracy oe the solution. For evaluation of the computational requirements and verification of the obtained results the wellestablished sliding mesh technique SMT has been used.

The full paper will comprise the experimental validation of the obtained resuIts as weil. Index Terms - Eddy currents, finite element methods, Lorentz force, nondestructive testing. Design and optimization strategies for energy harvesters excited by a harmonic sinusoidal oscillation have been reported by many researchers.

However in most cases, especially in automotive applications, there is a spectrum of excitation frequencies. Therefore, in this paper a strategy is developed and presented for achieving an increase of power density for multimodal excitations considering the available design space. The new technique, "Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" and the established method of classical eddy current testing, applied to Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of surface and subsurface defects in electrical conductive and non-ferromagnetic materials are compared.

Induced electric field profiles in a homogeneous isotropic sphere, were calculated in the framework of transcranial magnetic Stimulation TMS. The results were compared between an analytic and a finite-element method FEM. The analytic calculations were performed using Eaton's method. A commercial available figure-ofcoil was used to operate as the source of excitation. A comparison between both methods show a higher confity than reported in previous studies.

With the presented results it is possible to use Eaton's method efficiently to compute the induced electric field profiles very quickly for example while searching for specific coil arrangements around the humans head, as in the case of deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation dTMS.

In the contribution, we present design considerations for energy harvesters which are seen as a key enabler for a wide-spread use of decentralized sensors. In a contemporary scenario, such sensors are communicating via a wireless network. As a result, the energy-autonomous operation of the corresponding embedded microsystems forms an essential research target. Besides a characterization of the device to be supplied, general design aspects are addressed.

Special emphasis is put an the design of mechanical energy harvesters based an Faraday's induction principle. Based an theoretical studies and experimental investigations, first design guidelines are presented. Es beeinflusst das Zustandsverhalten im gesamten Bereich der Gatespannung. Es wird eine Methode demonstriert, anhand derer sich Aussagen treffen lassen, in welchem Bereich die Gatespannung bei bekannten Transistoreigenschaften und RTN-Pegel liegen darf.

In this paper we discuss the impact of cooperative satellite diversity on the availability of the land mobile satellite LMS channel. By the use of multiple terminals the overall probability to encounter conditions where all terminals are in a bad channel state is reduced. This reduction depends on the number of terminals and the terminal distance. The results presented in this paper are completely based on the analysis of measurements. These were conducted for two geostationary satellites and four different environments using a single mobile satellite terminal.

Thus, in order to virtually increase the number of terminals we rely on a convoy scenario using shifted versions of the data. Analyzing up to four cooperative terminals and different terminal distances a significant bad state reduction is already achieved for rather small distances. Power loss density and energy converted into heat considering dispersive biological tissue was investigated in the framework of transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS. The solutions were obtained by applying an analytic method of Eaton [1] and a finite-element method FEM.

A commercial available figure-of-8 coil with a biphasic current pulse operates as the source of excitation. The calculations were performed in the frequency domain by using complex harmonics at different frequencies in order to reconstruct the transient signal in the excitation coil. The displacement current density was taken into account to provide an accurate estimate of the total energy.

The human head was modeled as a homogeneous isotropic dispersive volume conductor consisting of grey matter GM. The dielectric properties of GM were calculated in dependence on the frequency by means of the Cole-Cole model from Gabriel et al. The induced electric field as well as the current density are compared against those obtained in the non-dispersive case.

The results revealed an increased magnitude of the peak value of the current density by However, the induced electric field was not influenced by tissues dispersivity. Finally it was shown that the frequency dependent biological tissue affects the time development of the power loss density but has only minor effects on the total energy converted into heat. Keywords - dispersive material, finite-element method, transcranial magnetic stimulation.

The changing demography requires new kinds of support for elderly people. Technical assistance systems could allow aged people to stay longer in well-known neighborhoods. While utilizing familiar media usage habits, the acceptance rate of a technical assistance system will be increased. Therefore, as many as possible potential communication methods between users and the assistance system are required. This paper describes a communication middleware for an assistance system which was originally designed and developed within the finished research project called "WEITBLICK".

The middleware has been continuously enhanced independently from the research project. Further, the paper will discuss two use cases and two demonstration applications which are utilizing the described communication middleware. Special emphasis is paid to the role of the channel design. The SG concept, however, turns out to be exceptionally robust against threshold voltage fluctuations caused by single charged impurities.

This work describes the high-level modeling of the effects of noise for performance analyses in circuits and systems which are prone to errors. In order to allow for comprehensive studies, the modeling is based on a SystemC description because of its system level modeling capabilities and of its fine time granularity.

The features offered by this approach are demonstrated by example of an ultra-lowpower microelectronics circuit technology. Keywords - High-level modeling, Performance analysis, SystemC, Ultra-low-power microelectronics circuit. The fundamental concept of a robust and compact GNSS-receiver and the first development steps and simulation results are presented. The receiver comprises a miniatur-ized antenna array with a novel decoupling and matching network to excite the eigenmodes of the array.

In contrast to conventional multi-antenna solutions, these eigenmode patterns are used for digital beamforming and steering. They also have been modified if necessary. For fast signal processing new concepts for hardware implementation have been devel-oped. First results of the beamforming software and hardware performance are presented.

The structural basis of the compact GNSS-receiver is a miniaturized antenna element designed for operation in the E1 band. Suitable front ends, fabricated in 0. Design and construction of antenna and front end are discussed in detail. Finally, to test and demonstrate the precision of naviga-tion and the receiver robustness against interference in a disturbed environment, a suitable demonstrator will be built of which the fundamental concept is presented.

We provide that cellular composition of bacteria could be identified by dielectric spectroscopy. Gram-positive and negative bacterial strain permittivity measurement was performed in frequency range from MHz. The results demonstrated connectivity from cell count and permittivity.

A clear discrimination between real part of permittivity of Gram-positive and -negative strains was possible. A compact 4x4 reconfigurable switch matrix based on LTCC technology is presented for Ka-band space applications. The key features include the embedded matching networks, optimized interconnect, vertical transitions, integration of digitally controlled bipolar current sources and a redundancy concept for power-failure.

We have developed a compact and reconfigurable microwave switch matrix for satellite applications using the low temperature co-fired ceramics technology LTCC. In order to verify the technology, we combined these components to build a system, that enables automated verification in space.

Ultra-wideband UWB technology has achieved a high degree of maturity. One important field of applications marks radar sensing, given the high temporal and spatial resolution of UWB signals, their deep electromagnetic wave penetration through matter, low integral power, and the co-existence of UWB systems with narrow-band radio systems. The focus of this presentation will be on UWB sensors for biomedical diagnostics and imaging, exploiting motional features e. The talk aims at highlighting the potential and remaining challenges for such applications, and providing an overview of current UWB systems and their distinctive features.

A contact-less, interference-free approach for the detection of cardiac mechanics and respiration by means of multi-channel ultra-wideband UWB radar was developed [2], suitable to deliver trigger signals for cardiac MR imaging. Compared to previous systems we increased the number of antennas to four transmitters and eight receiver antennas. This allows measurements of up to 32 channels and makes UWB motion detection less sensitive to the particular positioning of the antennas relative to the heart.

Ultra-wideband active array imaging has proven extremely valuable for biomedical diagnostics. At the same time, the underlying technologies have achieved a high degree of maturity. Across institutions, we have merged our expertise in M-sequence radar systems, antennas, low-noise and high-power circuitry, to devise an UWB MIMO radar system for breast tumour localisation.

Recent progress in UWB imaging and hardware for active antenna arrays is presented. This paper presents a low-profile user-terminal antenna for mobile bi-directional Ka-band satellite communication networks for emergency scenarios. We have devised an antenna with a circularly polarised radiation pattern and dual-band capability, which addresses a hybrid tracking.

The principle of operation of a rectangular antenna panel applying a dual-band partially reflective surface PRS of 60 mm by mm was manufactured and successfully verified. This publication describes the design of the panel and analyses measurement results. Furthermore, our first low-profile antenna demonstrator is presented, intended to be evaluated at a testbed for satellite communications in Ilmenau. We report an investigation of the motion of a freefalling permanent magnet in an electrically conducting pipe containing an idealized defect.

This problem represents a highly simplified yet enlightening version of a method called Lorentz force eddy current testing which is a modification of the traditional eddy current testing technique. Our investigation is a combination of analytical theory, numerical simulation and experimental validation. The analytical theory allows a rigorous prediction about the relation between the size of the defect and the change in falling time which represents the central result of the present work.

The numerical simulation allows to overcome limitations inherent in the analytical theory. We test our predictions by performing a series of experiments. We conclude that our theory properly captures the essence of Lorentz force eddy current testing although a refinement of the experiment is necessary to reduce the discrepancy to the predictions. In spite of its apparent simplicity the present system can serve as a prototype and benchmark for future research on Lorentz force eddy current testing.

According to the senescent society, the current demographic trend has a big challenge for development of new and better services for elderly people. Today, elderly people experience better health and sanity than elderly people some years ago. Therefore, there is a need for healthcare, infotainment, e-learning and other services that can satisfy the desires of this group. But the comparison of different learning platforms and currently developed or deployed architectures in this field identifies the absence of the combination between ambient assisted living and e-learning services.

It uses the OpenAAL platform and consolidates services for ambient assisted living and e-learning. These services are optimized by exploiting context information obtained from the users. To gather context information, we utilize a network of sensors, which are disseminated through the environment or worn by users. It demonstrates that this system can support a humanly responsible and self-contained life for elderly people in a familiar environment and ensures their integration into society.

Lorentz force eddy current testing is a new nondestructive testing technique that enables its user to detect and localize defects deeply inside a conductive nonmagnetic solid state body. The paper is comparing the dipole model above an infinite plane with the numerical model of finite shaped magnets and validation experiments. Using the obtained results design criteria for measurement setups can be derived.

The paper describes an approach for modelling of permanent magnets in dynamic electromagnetic simulations with moving structures. The method is based on an introduction of logical expressions into modelling of the moving permanent magnet domain. The present study investigates numerically and experimentally features of the presented technique through the application to Lorentz force eddy current testing LET.

MANETs also play a vital role in providing an uninterrupted communication service between members of a rescue team in natural or anthropogenic disasters. The paper aims at the development of a method for the removal of baseline drift of fetal magnetocardiograms. The performance of the method is ensured through the appropriate preselection of two parameters: the mother wavelet used for the computation of the SWT and the number of decomposition levels, selected in accordance to the sampling frequency of the magnetocardiogram MCG.

The method is robust and can be used in an automatic processing system. A communication middleware, which is discussed in this paper, has the aim to provide a flexible and uniform interface for elderly people assistance systems. This paper describes the concept of a low-profile user terminal antenna intended for mobile bi-directional Ka-band satellite communications. The concept addresses a hybrid electronic and mechanical tracking method.

The antenna consists of several two-dimensional leaky-wave antenna panels. Each panel is excited by a slotted waveguide feed, composed of a linear array of circularly polarised slots. This structure offers a reconfigurable radiation pattern. As a proof-of-principle, a rectangular antenna panel for the downlink at 20 GHz was manufactured and measured. The paper describes the design of the panel in detail and presents the results of numerical simulation and measurement.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to calculate the two-dimensional 2D centre position of objects with known shapes based on the reconstruction image of a square sensing area estimated with simulated and measured data by using electrical capacitance tomography ECT.

A reconstruction algorithm with low computation time provides suitable images for subsequent image processing techniques. The results based on numerical data are verified by measurements. Findings - It is possible to calculate the centre position of up to four rod cross-sectional area about 5 per cent of the measuring area with an accuracy of 3 per cent in both coordinate directions related to the dimensions of the measuring area.

Purpose - Josephson junctions act as active elements in superconducting electronics. The behavior of this nonlinear element is characterized by the relation between current and the quantum mechanical phase-difference. For an accurate device modeling, detailed knowledge about this relation is necessary.

This paper aims to discuss these issues. Findings - The authors developed a linear transformation algorithm to calculate the current-phase relation from the measured data. Therefore, the authors will deposit the new element directly on the chip with the test setup fabricated with standard Nb-technology.

Keywords Electronic engineering, Phase electronic , Modelling. Im Modell wird der Einfluss der Blendenzahl bzw. This paper investigates the trade-off between speed and accuracy of a Josephson comparator by numerical simulations. The accuracy is quantified by the width of the gray zone whereas the speed is determined by the switching time of the comparator cell.

In contrast to previous studies, both performance parameters are simultaneously evaluated. It turns out that there is an inherent compromise between speed and accuracy that is robust against modifications of circuit parameters. Eventually, a new comparator topology is proposed to improve the accuracy while maintaining a reasonable switching speed. Die personalisierte Dienstleitungsvermittlung bedient sich dazu einer dynamischen, selbst adaptierenden Wissensbasis.

Fernseher oder Mobiltelefone genutzt werden. Dazu ist eine Kommunikations-Middleware zu entwickeln. Using the effect of induced Lorentz forces due to relative movement between a permanent magnet and an electrically conducting nonmagnetic solid state body it is possible to detect and localize defects inside the body. This technique is demonstrated using the well known Faraday experiment in electromagnetics of a falling permanent magnet in an electrically conducting nonmagnetic pipe.

In order to understand the underlaying physical phenomenon both, an analytical model for a magnetic dipole approximation and a numerical solution are presented. The results of simulations are finally compared with experimental data.

For solving electromagnetic field problems in open regions it can be difficult to define appropriate exterior boundary condition if FEM should be applied. The paper describes how asymptotic boundary conditions for axisymmetric and 3D magnetic field problems can be introduced into commercial FEM codes.

Relative movement of permanent magnet and conductor evokes forces acting on both objects Lorentz forces. These forces can be used for studying material characteristics of the conducting object nondestructive testing. The paper compares various modeling techniques transient, quasi-static, fast-quasi-static of a moving permanent magnet above conducting plate using 2-D and 3-D finite-element method FEM.

The proposed approaches are applied to calculations of force profiles which enable to identify defects in conductor. The comparison of simulations with measurements performed on a long aluminum bar is also presented. In einer Demonstratorumgebung wurden die theoretischen Konzepte in der Praxis erprobt. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a 3D model of deep welding of dissimilar metals and to show how to model the electron beam deflection due to thermoelectric fields caused by temperature gradients in some dissimilar metals Seebeck effect.

A weak coupling between analysed fields is assembled. Additionally, the influence of the deflection on the calculated fields was not taken into account. The problem is solved using a finite element method. Frequency compensation of feedback amplifiers is an important and often very difficult task in integrated circuit design.

For the investigation of performance and stability of high-performance circuits, the conventional means of feedback theory are not always sufficient. Parasitic device effects always cause internal feedback loops, even in open-loop configuration, that make classical design approaches such as two-pole open-loop frequency response approximations inapplicable or lead to overly conservative designs.

In this paper, we present a novel computer-aided design method for compensating feedback amplifiers directly in closed-loop configuration. The strategy is based on augmenting the closedloop circuit to be compensated with capacitive branches between all independent nodes such that the DC operating point remains unchanged. Our algorithm then identifies and sizes those capacitances which can be used to shift critical poles further into the left-half plane such that peaks in the frequency response are minimized while maintaining maximum bandwidth.

We demonstrate our approach on a high-speed transimpedance amplifier used for optoelectronic integrated circuit applications. Metamaterial transmission lines can be realized as a combination of transmission line sections with positive and negative dispersion. Such lines, which are also known as right- and left-handed transmission lines, exhibit different dispersion characteristics.

Compared to homogeneous networks, the use of cascaded line sections gives additional degrees of freedom for improving the performance of microwave devices. For the design process, LC-equivalents of the right- and left-handed transmission line sections are used. This facilitates the consideration of tunable capacitors, e.

At the same time, the geometrical dimensions of the devices can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the results of simulation and experimental investigation of a miniature rat-race-ring and a dual-band filter free of spurious response, both manufactured as fully-integrated ceramic multilayer modules based on Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics.

The design of tunable versions of these devices is also discussed. This paper focuses on applications of the metamaterial left-handed transmission lines to the design of novel Wilkinson-type power dividers. A concept of designing dual-band Wilkinson power dividers based on a combination of right-handed and lefthanded transmission line sections is considered as well.

A band broadening technique for the dual-band Wilkinson power dividers is discussed. Magnetic Field Tomography MFT techniques can be useful to solve those inverse problems where contactless measurements have to be applied. We present heuristic approaches for the identification of the shape of the interface between two conducting fluids using multi-channel magnetic field measurements.

A combination of the principle component analysis and evolutionary algorithms together with special regularization techniques was used to identify that interface mode describing the measured magnetic data in optimal way. VoIP ist eine neue Technologie mit einigen Kinderkrankheiten. Durch die sich seit den letzten Jahren vollziehende Konvergenz der Netze entsteht ein Bedarf nach neuen Methoden zur Dienstsuche.

Realisiert wird dies mit Hilfe des kontextsensitiven Routings. Die elektromagnetische Modifizierung von Materialien mittels elektromagnetisch generierter Kraftdichten steht seit Jahren im Fokus wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Diese Dienste nennt man kontextsensitive Dienste.

REACH offers for multiple data capturing schemes required to provide an easy-to-use handover-aware solution, but VoIP was not supported yet. Modern mobile PCs have different kinds of network access technologies, such as wire-based interfaces Ethernet or wireless adapters IEEE Ongoing research deals with the problem of performing a "vertical handover", that allows switching your currently used network access technology on-the-fly without interruption of the application sessions.

A mobile node can connect to multiple proxy servers simultaneously in order to utilize different services, take care of some forms of performance degradation that are related to triangle routing and to do load balancing. Due to the pulse driven nature of the Rapid Single Flux Quantum electronics nearly every basic cell requires the capability of temporary data storing.

Implementing phase shifting elements in this essential device leads to several advantages concerning the device characteristics. There are different concepts enabling phase shifting elements. We give a comparative overview about these approaches. The effect of this novel element on a basic cell is analyzed exampling a toggle-flip-flop.

Based on the effective noise temperature determined from the experimental results of a standard flip-flop, the bit error rate for several toggle-flip-flop realizations containing different phase shifting elements was calculated.

The focus of our work is the miniaturisation of a dipole antenna array by two complementary means. On the one hand, we want to place the antennas close above a high-impedance surface. We derive a formulation to design analytically a high-impedance surface consisting of a periodic structure, which displays a surface wave band gap for a range of wavelengths much larger than the periodicity of the structure. For frequencies below the band gap, the structure supports backward waves, above the band gap forward waves are supported.

Our considerations are verified by measurements. The rationale of the project is to exploit the possibility of integrating passive and active components in LTCC multilayer structures. This opens possibilities to minimize the complexity of the semiconducting components. A six layer construction with 7 conducting levels was chosen. The semiconductor switch dies were countersinked in cavities on both the top and the bottom of the circuit. The active chips were mounted using electrically conductive epoxy and wire-bonded afterwards.

For testing purposes additional cavities were situated on the top side. The matrix was hermetically sealed by covers on both sides. These covers were also made in LTCC technology. For cavities and vias mechanical punching and laser cutting were used.

In this paper, we propose an approach for detection of signal competition within asynchronous ultra high-speed digital circuits using a pulse data coding. The circuits considered are modeled by the corresponding directed graph with each asynchronous gate presented by a vertex and each signal line - by an edge.

The approach is based on finding all different path pairs between every pair of vertices. The condition about signal competition is related to the delay times associated with the different path pairs between every pair of vertices of the corresponding graph. In this paper, we investigate the application of the asynchronous logic approach for the realization of ultra high-speed digital electronics having higher complexity. We evaluate the possible physical, technological, and schematical origins of restrictions limiting such an application, and propose solutions for their overcoming.

Although our considerations are based on the Rapid Single-Flux Quantum technique, the conclusions derived can be generalised about any type of digital information coding. In this paper, a digital capacitive proximity sensor is described and tested on an experimental setup.

A simple calibration process and low complexity of the equation predestine the used mathematical approach for implementation on a controller. If the user wants to access the Internet he has to choose one of the technologies and has to use it for the whole duration of the session. But this is problematic when the user wants to be mobile and has to change network access technologies. It was quite problematic so far to start a session using Ethernet and then perform a seamless vertical handover to WLAN when the user becomes mobile.

The protocols used in the Internet were not designed with mobility in mind. Some proposals were made to circumvent these problems, for example by using enhancements like Mobile IP or IPv6 , but a solution that could easily be applied to a multitude of different "real-world systems" has not been presented yet.

We developed a method that implements a data transfer mechanism that is able to handle the problems caused by mobility and vertical handovers. Our first approach made use of the universal proxy protocol SOCKSv5 RFC to relay all data to a central proxy server using a handover-capable transport mechanism. This paper presents our latest enhancement that makes use of a Virtual Private Network VPN in combination with our handover capable transport mechanism.

This offers a full VPN-based network access to all applications running on the mobile node and is able to do all handover related work transparently. VPN-clients are available for all relevant operating systems. The architecture offers full mobility to the end user without the need of modifications to the applications or the operating system itself.

Within the project KERAMIS Ceramic Microwave Circuits for Satellite Communications , which is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Technology, a consortium of six companies, research institutes and universities are developing ceramic based microwave circuits and modules for satellite applications. Some of these elements include laser-structured micro-vias.

Die elektrotechnische Grundlagenausbildung in der Aus- und Weiterbildung von Ingenieuren kann und muss durch den Einsatz neuer Medien effizienter gestaltet werden. An der TU Dresden entstanden in den letzten Jahren mehrere Videodemonstrationen verschiedener elektrotechnischer Experimente.

Einige fachlich und didaktisch hochwertige Online-Lernmodule und Tools wurden in die lokale Datenbank der Online-Lernumgebung www. TU Ilmenau Homelink. Karriere Weiterbildung Alumni International Aktuelles. Studieninteressierte Studierende Mitarbeiter Journalisten Wirtschaft. Drenkhahn, Kevin E. Schwind, Andreas; Hofmann, Willi; Stephan, Ralf; Hein, Matthias; Bi-static reflectivity measurements of vulnerable road users using scaled radar objects.

Wagner, Christoph W. Korobkov, Alexey A. Shala, Mendrit; Sewalkar, Parag; Seitz, Jochen; On-demand quality-of-service for crucial vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. Andrich, Carsten; Engelhardt, Maximilian; Ihlow, Alexander; Beuster, Niklas; Measurement of drift and jitter of network synchronized distributed clocks. Balabozov, Iosko; Tomov, Dragoslav; Yatchev, Ivan; Hadzhiev, Ivan; Brauer, Hartmut; Experimental study of the influence of some parameters on the characteristics of hybrid electromagnetic system with magnetic flux modulation.

Zirwas, Wolfgang; Michalopoulos, Diomidis S. Hasnain, Syed N. Asghar, Muhammad Ehtisham; Bornkessel, Christian; Hein, Matthias; Experimental determination of the total radiated power of automotive antennas in the installed state. Hofmann, Willi; Schwind, Andreas; Bornkessel, Christian; Hein, Matthias; Advanced calibration method for accurate microwave absorber reflectivity measurements at oblique illumination angles. Zhou, Chengwei; Gu, Yujie; Shi, Zhiguo; Haardt, Martin; Direction-of-arrival estimation for coprime arrays via coarray correlation reconstruction: a one-bit perspective.

Stehr, Uwe; Centeno, L. Kalloch, Benjamin; Weise, Konstantin; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Lampe, Leonie; Villringer, Arno; Hlawitschka, Mario; Sehm, Carl Bernhard Siegfried; A group-level sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of white matter lesions on the electrical field in simulations of transcranial electric stimulation.

Sousa, Marcelo N. Alshra'a, Abdullah Soliman; Seitz, Jochen; External device to protect the software-defined network performance in case of a malicious attack. Ardah, Khaled; Pesavento, Marius; Haardt, Martin; A novel sensing matrix design for compressed sensing via mutual coherence minimization. ION , , S. Yeredor, Arie; Haardt, Martin; Estimation of a low-rank probability-tensor from sample sub-tensors via joint factorization minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence.

Freitas, Walter; da C. Juni Solovyeva, Elena B. Yatchev, Ivan; Balabozov, Iosko; Brauer, Hartmut; Gueorgiev, Vultchan; Computer modeling and experimental verification of a hybrid electromagnetic system with magnetic flux modulation. Michelson, David, G. Mai : Tagungsband.. Sewalkar, Parag; Vehicle-to-everything communication for safety of vulnerable road users. Song, Nuan; Yang, Tao; Haardt, Martin; Non-linear precoding based hybrid space-ground beamforming for multi-beam satellite systems.

De Sousa, Marcelo N. Sultanguzin, Ildar A. Gibalina, Zlata S. Chauhan, Vikrant; Wandji, L. Weiss, Amir; Yeredor, Arie; Cheema, Sher Ali; Haardt, Martin; On consistency and asymptotic uniqueness in quasi-maximum likelihood blind separation of temporally-diverse sources. Balabozov, Iosko; Yatchev, Ivan; Brauer, Hartmut; Obtaining resonance frequency and corresponding circuit parameters in an induction heating system. Tataria, Harsh; Smith, Peter J. Bekhtin, Yury S. Balabozov, Iosko; Brauer, Hartmut; Yatchev, Ivan; Hristov, Petar; Obtaining resonance frequency and corresponding circuit parameters in an induction heating system.

September in Hamburg.. Krug, Silvia; Seitz, Jochen; Challenges for sensor network based outdoor positioning in forests - a case study. Yeryomin, Yevgeniy; Seitz, Jochen; Application-aware optimization approaches for multiple-criteria network selection in mobile heterogeneous networks. Song, Nuan; Yang, Tao; Haardt, Martin; Efficient hybrid space-ground precoding techniques for multi-beam satellite systems. Kotterman, Wim A. Dietrich, Thomas; Krug, Silvia; Zimmermann, Armin; An empirical study on generic multicopter energy consumption profiles.

Wolf, Mike; Frequency domain equalization for dispersive optical channels with intensity modulation and direct detection. Codecasa, Lorenzo; Di Rienzo, Luca; Weise, Konstantin; Haueisen, Jens; Uncertainty quantification in transcranial magnetic stimulation with correlation between tissue conductivities. Naskovska, Kristina; Haardt, Martin; Extension of the semi-algebraic framework for approximate CP decompositions via simultaneous matrix diagonalization to the efficient calculation of coupled CP decompositions.

Lima, Pedro F. Silva, Ronaldo R. Reis, Paulo Max G. Tu, Cheng; Lee, Joshua E. Naumova, Annete; Bogomolov, I. Ostrovskii, Valerii Y. Almeida, Luciano R. Steinwandt, Jens; Steffens, Christian; Pesavento, Marius; Haardt, Martin; Sparsity-aware direction finding for strictly non-circular sources based on rank minimization. Marinho, Marco A.

September : Tagungsband.. Sewalkar, Parag; Vehicle-to-pedestrian communication for pedestrian safety. Al-Rubaye, Atheer; Vertical handover management with quality of service support. Al-Rubaye, Atheer; Seitz, Jochen; A cross-layer mobility management with multi-criteria decision making. Yeryomin, Yevgeniy; Seitz, Jochen; Enhanced multi-criteria-based path selection algorithm for heterogeneous networks.

Pralon, Mariana G. Bornkessel, Christian; Hein, Matthias A. Krug, Silvia; Seitz, Jochen; Exploiting already deployed sensor networks for opportunistic emergency communication services. September in Erlangen.. Long, Shihe; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Wolf, Mike; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bourennane, Salah; Performance of carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with frequency domain equalization for indoor visible light communications.

Bornkessel, Christian; Hein, Matthias; Wuschek, Matthias; Measurement of human exposure to LTE base stations : present status and future challenges in measurement methodology. A dual-band compact L-Quad antenna array for radio localization. A single Ka-band antenna aperture for TX and RX operation applying a dual-layer partially reflective surface. A compact planar feed structure for Ka-band satcom-on-the-move tracking antennas.

Hager, Markus; Wernecke, Luise; Schneider, Christian; Seitz, Jochen Vehicular ad hoc networks: multi-hop information dissemination in an urban scenario. Sparsity order estimation for sub-Nyquist sampling and recovery of sparse multiband signals. Krug, Silvia; Schellenberg, Sebastian; Seitz, Jochen Impact of traffic and mobility patterns on network performance in disaster scenarios.

Numerical assessment of reflectarray applicability to CS-based DoA estimation. Steinwandt, Jens; Radhakrishna, Vimal; ; Distributed beamforming for cooperative networks with widely-linear processing at the relays and the receiver. Cheng, Yao; Baltar, Leonardo G.

Passive reciprocal transistor-based RF tuneable inductances. A wide dynamic range four-port spectrum sensor for cognitive radio. Geometrical tolerance of optical fiber and laser diode for passive alignment using LTCC technology. Sparsity order estimation for single snapshot compressed sensing.

Steinwandt, Jens; Vorobyov, Sergiy A. Zhang, Jianshu; Naskovska, Kristina; ; ; Tensor-based channel estimation for non-regenerative two-way relaying networks with multiple relays. Perkovic, Igor; Weise, Konstantin; Poljak, Dragan; Brauer, Hartmut Numerical optimization of electrically focal transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

On the sensing matrix performance for support recovery of noisy sparse signals. Uchoa, Andre G. Flexible coordinated beamforming with lattice reduction for multi-user massive MIMO systems. Middle-range surveillance by UWB radar: an experimental feasibility study. Zec, Mladen; Uhlig, Robert P. Schirmer, Christopher; Kotterman, Wim A. An eigen-analysis of a compact L-quad antenna array for direction finding.

Land-mobile Ka-band satcom tracking antenna employing a printed circuit board based multimode monopulse feed. Blau, Kurt; Serebryakov, Elena The appropriate design of the reconstruction filter and its influence on the output power and efficiency of class-S and quasi class-S power amplifiers. Sharma, Rajesh K. Schirmer, Christopher; Landmann, Markus H. Qureshi, Bilal H. Ibraheam, Maysam; Butt, Safwat Irteza; ; Hein, Matthias; Enhancing the radiation efficiency of compact antenna arrays using spatial tilting.

September Ilmenau, , S. Hager, Markus; Intelligente Transportsysteme. Becker, Hanna; Chevalier, Pascal; Haardt, Martin High resolution direction finding from rectangular higher order cumulant matrices: the rectangular 2Q-music algorithms. On the estimation of grid offsets in CS-based direction-of-arrival estimation. Uhlig, Robert P. Zhang, Jianshu; Taghizadeh, Omid; Haardt, Martin; Transmit strategies for full-duplex point-to-point systems with residual self-interference.

Brauer, Hartmut; Uhlig, Robert P. On buried weapon detection by means of scattering matrix decomposition for quad-polarized ultra-wideband Radar. Zhang, Jianshu; Vorobyov, Sergiy A. Statistical harmonic load termination analysis of switch-mode power amplifiers employing bandpass-pulse-length modulation. Performance evaluation of energy detection for correlated random signals. Exploiting spatial dimension in spectrum sensing using a sector antenna: a ray tracer based analysis. Li, Peng; Lamare, Rodrigo C.

Low-complexity robust data-dependent dimensionality reduction based on joint iterative optimization of parameters. Steinwandt, Jens; ; Reduced-complexity distributed beamforming algorithm for individual relay power constraints. Renhak, Karsten; Seitz, Jochen User centric multi-purpose messaging framework.

Steinwandt, Jens; ; Optimal widely-linear distributed beamforming for relay networks. Steinwandt, Jens; ; Widely-linear distributed beamforming for weak-sense non-circular sources based on relay power minimization. Low-earth-orbit verification of a reconfigurable 4x4 switch matrix and potential applications for satellite communications.

Low-profile tracking antenna for Ka-band satellite communications. Ultra-wideband miniaturised high permittivity-matched antennas for biomedical diagnostic. Cheng, Yao; Haardt, Martin Robust multi-dimensional model order estimation in the presence of brief sensor failures. Riverside] Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.. Motion detection in-vivo by multi-channel ultra-wideband radar. Cooper, K. Carrier noise-limited penetration in THz radar imaging.

Tarasov, Mikhail; Seitz, Jochen Self-organized network optimization via placement of additional nodes. Schellenberg, Sebastian; Seitz, Jochen Self-organized naming and adress resolution in heterogeneous networks. Microelectronics and Packaging Soc. Ultra-wideband channel sounder - design, construction and selected applications. Zu, Keke; Lamare, Rodrigo C. Robust source number enumeration for r-dimensional arrays in case of brief sensor failures.

Transmit beamforming for inter-operator spectrum sharing: from theory to practice. Trabert, Johannes F. Darmstadt, Inst. Noise characterization of a multi-channel receiver using a small antenna array with full diversity for robust satellite navigation. Hein, Matthias A. Helbig, Marko; Hein, Matthias A. A low-profile user terminal antenna for mobile bi-directional Ka-band satellite communications. ISLE, , insges. Sum rate maximization for multi-pair two-way relaying with single-antenna amplify and forward relays.

Zafar, Bilal; Gherekhloo, Soheyl; Haardt, Martin; Analysis of multihop relaying networks : communication between range-limited and cooperative nodes. Renhak, Karsten; Kommunikation in Assistenzsystemen durch eine nachrichtenbasierte Middleware. Tarasov, Mikhail; Erkennung und Behebung von Netzpartitionierungen.

Low-profile Ka-band satellite terminal antenna based on a dual-band partially reflective surface. A dual-band multimode monopulse tracking antenna for land-mobile satellite communications in Ka-band. Information Management Corp. Murtaza, Noman; Reconfiurable antenna design for cognitive radio.

Krah, Alexander; Over-the-air test of self-organizing radio systems. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter , including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. Lott, B. In order to determine the response of the calorimeter to relativistic heavy ions lighter than Fe, an experiment was carried out at the GSI heavy ion facility using the Fragment Separator FRS.

Data on the energy resolution for the individual CsI crystals and on the loss of ions due to nuclear reactions in the calorimeter are also presented. Guerrero, C. We present a detailed description of the TAC and discuss its overall performance in terms of energy and time resolution, background discrimination, detection efficiency and neutron sensitivity. New method of fast simulation for a hadron calorimeter response. In this work we present the new method of a fast Monte-Carlo simulation of a hadron calorimeter response.

A new approach of including the longitudinal fluctuations of hadronic shower is described. A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter.

A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons. The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV.

In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter , and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in.

We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules.

Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks or most probable values of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

This work presents the simulation code that has been developed in GEANT4 for the accurate determination of the detection efficiency of the TAC for neutron capture events. The code allows to calculate the efficiency of the TAC for every neutron capture state, as a function of energy, crystal multiplicity, and counting rate.

The code includes all instrumental effects such as the single crystal detection threshold and energy resolution, finite size of the coincidence time window, and signal pile-up. The systematic uncertainty in the determination of the detection efficiency has been estimated for all the cases. Such a value matches the high accuracy required for the nuclear cross-section data needed in advanced reactor design. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system is studied.

These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. We analyze in detail the differences in total calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and discuss the underlying phenomena.

These data will play a crucial role in the thorough understanding of jets in CMS. In-depth analysis and discussions of water absorption -typed high power laser calorimeter. In high-power and high-energy laser measurement, the absorber materials can be easily destroyed under long-term direct laser irradiation.

In order to improve the calorimeter 's measuring capacity, a measuring system directly using water flow as the absorber medium was built. The system's basic principles and the designing parameters of major parts were elaborated. The system's measuring capacity, the laser working modes, and the effects of major parameters were analyzed deeply.

Moreover, the factors that may affect the accuracy of measurement were analyzed and discussed. The specific control measures and methods were elaborated. The self-calibration and normal calibration experiments show that this calorimeter has very high accuracy. In electrical calibration, the average correction coefficient is only 1. In calibration experiments, the standard deviation relative to a middle-power standard calorimeter is only 1.

The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. Techniques to correct the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic EB and hadronic HB barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons are also presented.

The corrected mean response remains constant within 1. Aad, G. First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system has been studied.

The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a detailed discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. We also show techniques that apply corrections to the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic EB and hadronic HB barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons.

Abolins, M. We have also investigated the effects of adding small amounts of methane to the liquid argon. In-situ probe of the response of the Tile Calorimeter to isolated hadrons. It is based on a sampling technique where scintillating tiles are embedded in iron absorber plates. The tiles are grouped together in cells which are disposed in three different layers.

An in-situ method to probe the calorimeter response to single charged hadrons can be established by using the ratio of energy measured in the calorimeter cells over the momentum measured by the inner tracking system. This measurement can be used to place constraints on the systematic uncertainty for the jet and tau energy scales. Results from pp collision data from and will be shown and discussed as a function of different layer and barrel section.

Finally, comparison to MC simulation will prove the good performance of the detector. One step of the calibration is based on measurements of the response to laser pulse excitation of the PMTs used to read out the calorimeter cells. A new statistical approach was used to measure the drift of the absolute PMT gain. A new procedure which combines studies of the time evolution of the global PMT responses and of the individual PMT gains was adopted to derive the evolution of the cathode quantum efficiency.

The experimental setup of the Pisa facility is described and the first results obtained by testing about 30 PMTs Hamamatsu model R a special evolution f The experimental setup of the Pisa facility is described and the first results obtained by testing about 30 PMTs Hamamatsu model R a special evolution fo Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets.

Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter TileCal is needed. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muons data allow to study the dependence of the response on the incident point and angle in the cell. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data will allow to tune the calorimeter response to pions and kaons modelling to improve the reconstruction of the jet energies.

The results of the ongoing data analysis are discussed in the presentation. Influence of magnetic fields on the response of a uranium scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter. The response of a uranium scintillator sampling calorimeter to incident electrons and to the uranium radioactivity was measured in transverse magnetic fields up to 1. For fields below 0. At higher fields it drops sharply, reaching The consequences for the calibration of the ZEUS uranium scintillator calorimeter are discussed.

We found no evidence for a change in the electromagnetic sampling fraction for fields below 0. Abat, E. In this paper, the response of the central calorimeters to pions with energies in the range between 3 and 9 GeV is presented. The linearity and the resolution of the combined calorimetry electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters was measured and compared to the prediction of a detector simulation program using the toolkit Geant 4.

Wright, T. The radiative capture cross section of a highly pure These data have undergone careful background subtraction, with special care being given to the background originating from neutrons scattered by the U sample.

Pileup and dead-time effects have been corrected for. The measured cross section covers an energy range between 0. The aim of a precise calibration of a calorimeter is to get the best response relationship between the calorimeter and the energy of incident particles.

Different types of particles interact through various types of interactions with the environment. Therefore, calorimeters are optimized to detect one type of particle electromagnetic particles and hadrons. Within current high energy physics experiments, where the detectors reached gigantic proportions, calorimeters hold two important features: - serve to measure power showers by complete absorption method; - reconstruct a direction of showers of particles after their interaction with the environment of calorimeter.

They record more energy from electrons as from pions of the same nominal power. The scope of the work is to determine correction factors for the calibration constants obtained from the primary calibration of the calorimeter by cesium for end Tilecal calorimeter modules.

Tile calorimeter modules consist of three layers A, BC and D. A correction factor for calibration constant for A layer was determined by electron beam firing angle less than 20 grad. Muons are used to determine correction factors for the remaining two layers of the end calorimeter module, where the electrons of given energy do not penetrate.

The neutron capture cross section of U is fundamental to the design and operation of current reactors and future fast nuclear reactors, and thus must be measured to a high level of accuracy. A preliminary analysis of the TAC data is presented with particular emphasis to the experimental background in this energy region of interest. The obtained calibration constant is used for muon response converting from pC to GeV.

The results are compared with existing experimental data and with some Monte Carlo calculations. Construction and response of a highly granular scintillator-based electromagnetic calorimeter. Repond, J. Calvo; Fouz, M.

Puerta; Verdugo, A. Van Der; Simon, F. A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter with scintillator strip readout is being developed for future linear collider experiments. A prototype of Deviations from linear energy response were less than 1. Data were collected with electron beams in the energy range 6 to 45 GeV. The analysis described in this paper focuses on electromagnetic shower reconstruction and characterises the ECAL response to electrons in terms of energy resolution and linearity.

The spatial uniformity and the time stability of the ECAL are also addressed. Modeling of Reaction Calorimeter. The purpose of this project was to model the reaction calorimeter in order to calculate the heat of absorption which is the most important parameter in this work. Reaction calorimeter is an apparatus which is used in measuring the heat of absorption of CO2 as well as the total pressure in vapor phase based on vapor-liquid equilibrium state. Project was divided in to three parts in order to make the programming It has been applied as a beam monitor for studying the characteristics of film dosimeters that are well-established for high doses of sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-rays and 1 to 10 MeV electrons.

The estimated fluence was evaluated on the basis of nominal particle energy values derived from the cyclotron acceleration parameters. The average ratio of the measured fluence values to the estimated values is 1. Impact of magnetic fields on the response behaviour of an uranium-scintillator- calorimeter. For an examination of the signals of the ZEUS calorimeter , an uranium-scintillator calorimeter has been built in cooperation with Toronto University in Canada.

The measurements in the magnetic field were done perpendicular to the incoming beam at field strengths of 0. In addition, the magnetic field impact on the signal of the uranium radioactivity was measured. An LED signal was used to check and verify sufficient shielding of the photo tubes against magnetic field effects. It was possible to keep amplification changes to less than 0. Fast- response cryogenic calorimeter containing a KG radiation absorber.

An isothermal liquid helium boiloff calorimeter containing a kg copper radiation absorber, and having a time constant U foils irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The short response time was achieved by the large reduction in heat capacity of solids at 4 0 K, and by nearly isothermal operation.

Though the initial power level was approx. The Al clad foils were transported in approx. Boil-off helium gas was warmed to room temperature in a controlled manner, and measured with a hot-film anemometer flowmeter, which was calibrated by comparison with a dry-test volume flowmeter, and by electric heating of the radiation absorber. Changes in the ECAL response , due to crystal radiation damage or changes in photo-detector output, are monitored in real time with a sophisticated system of lasers to allow corrections to the energy measurements to be calculated and used.

The excellent intrinsic resolution of the CMS ECAL requires the monitoring system itself to be calibrated to a high precision and its stability to be controlled and understood. Several physics channels are exploited to normalise the ECAL response to the changes measured by the monitoring system. These include low energy diphoton resonances, electrons from W and Z decays using shower energy versus track momentum measurements , and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits in minimum bias events.

This paper describes how the monitoring system is operated, how the corrections are obtained, and the resulting ECAL performance. Experimental study of the effect of hadron shower leakage on the energy response and resolution of ATLAS hadron barrel prototype calorimeter. Budagov, Yu. The hadronic shower longitudinal and lateral leakages and their effect on the pion response and energy resolution of ATLAS iron-scintillator barrel hadron prototype calorimeter have been investigated.

The fraction of the energy leaking out at the back of this calorimeter amounts to 1. Speed of response , pile-up and signal to noise ratio in liquid ionization calorimeters. Although liquid ionization calorimeters have been mostly used up to now with slow readout, their signals have a fast rise time. However, it is not easy to get this fast component of the pulse out of the calorimeter. For this purpose a new connection scheme of the electrodes, the electrostatic transformer, is presented and discussed.

This technique reduces the detector capacitance while keeping the number of channels at an acceptable level. Also it allows the use of transmission lines to bring signals from the electrodes to the preamplifiers which could be located in an accessible area. With room temperature liquids the length of these cables can be short, keeping the added noise at a reasonable level.

Contributions to the error on the energy measurement from pile up and electronics noise are studied in detail. Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster.

Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters. Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy.

I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits.

I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors.

I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes PMTs.

The resulting electronic signals from the approximately PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter. We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter , using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses.

Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…. Speed of response , pile-up, and signal to noise ratio in liquid ionization calorimeters. For this purpose a new connection scheme of the electrodes, the ''electrostatic transformer,'' is presented. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of GeV was studied. Measuring the short-term substrate utilization response to high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals in the whole-body indirect calorimeter.

The paper demonstrates that minute-to-minute metabolic response to meals with different macronutrient content can be measured and discerned in the whole-body indirect calorimeter. The ability to discriminate between high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals is achieved by applying a modified regularization technique with additional constraints imposed on oxygen consumption rate.

These additional constraints reduce the differences in accuracy between the oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers. Each volunteer performed four h long calorimeter sessions. At each session, they received one of four treatment combinations involving exercise high or low intensity and diet a high-fat or high-carbohydrate shake for lunch. One volunteer did not complete all four assignments, which brought the total number of sessions to 63 instead of During the h stay in the calorimeter , subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring system, which was used as a benchmark for subject's postprandial glycemic response.

The minute-by-minute respiratory exchange ratio RER data showed excellent agreement with concurrent subcutaneous glucose concentrations in postprandial state. The averaged minute-to-minute RER response to the high-carbohydrate shake was significantly different from the response to high-fat shake. Also, postprandial RER slopes were significantly different for two dietary treatments.

The results show that whole-body respiration calorimeters can be utilized as tools to study short-term kinetics of substrate oxidation in humans. Published This article is a U. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Measurement of pion and proton response and longitudinal shower profiles up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths with the ATLAS Tile calorimeter. The test-beam configuration allowed the measurement of the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It was found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are wider laterally to the direction of the impinging particle.

Including the measured total energy response , the pion-to-proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion-induced showers. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parametrized as a function of the beam energy and the calorimeter depth. This allows for a leakage correction of test-beam results in the standard projective geometry.

Adragna, P. Central hadron calorimeter of UA1. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response , is also described.

Corden, M. Plutonium assay calorimeters. Three calorimeters were developed for the IAEA: a small-sample portable calorimeter , a bulk calorimeter for up to 2 kg Pu in cans and capable of measuring up to 25 watts, and a calorimeter for 4-m long LWR Pu-recycle fuel roads. Design parameters and performance capability are given, and the instruments are compared with those developed for NRC. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design. A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter.

Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber Pb, W, DU, etc.

Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter WLS plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout.

Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and , scintillating tiles configured into cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers.

The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in and Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities.

The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design X-ray calorimeters used for measurement in laser-fusion experiments. X-ray calorimeters are ready to measure the total soft X-ray energy emitted from the plasma produced by laser because of their bodily absorption , linear response , insensitivity to the electromagnetic disturbance, and so on. The calorimeters mainly include absorbers, thermocouples, bases and shrouds.

When X-rays are deposited in the absorbers, photon energy absorbed is quickly converted into intrinsic energy which simultaneously dissipates by thermal conduction and radiation. The X-ray calorimeters were absolutely on-line calibrated in Shenguang-II laser facility with the X-ray diode array spectrometer which has been absolutely calibrated on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The calorimeters can be applied to measure the X-ray energy.

Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy. In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer.

The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects.

Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0. A measurement of the calorimeter response to single hadrons and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty using LHC Run-1 pp-collision data with the ATLAS detector.

Aaboud, M. Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. Homer L. Dodge Dept. This measurement is performed with 3. A number of aspects of the calorimeter response to isolated hadrons are explored. The description of the response to anti-protons at low momenta is found to be improved with respect to previous analyses.

The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are also examined separately, and the detector simulation is found to describe the response in the hadronic calorimeter well. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta and pseudorapidity are derived based on these studies. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta are derived based on these studies. The uncer The test-beam configuration allowed to measure the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths.

It is found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. Including the measured total energy response , the pion to proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion induced showers. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parameterised as a function of the b This article represents the very detailed simulation model of the SDC central calorimeters and some results which were obtained using that model.

SDC central calorimeters detailed description is extremely useful for different simulation tasks, for fast simulation program parameters tuning, for different geometry especially studying local response nonuniformity from bulkheads in the e.

This simulation model is very useful for tasks of the test beam modules calorimeter calibration and for calorimeter in situ calibration. CERN Multimedia. The eight toroid magnets can be seen surrounding the calorimeter that is later moved into the middle of the detector.

This calorimeter will measure the energies of particles produced when protons collide in the centre of the detector. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter. Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them. Monte Carlo simulation of a gas-sampled hadron calorimeter.

A prototype of the OPAL barrel hadron calorimeter , which is a gas-sampled calorimeter using plastic streamer tubes, was exposed to pions at energies between 1 and 7 GeV. By using the observed high energy muon signals to deduce details of the streamer formation, the Monte Carlo program was able to reproduce the observed calorimeter response. The behavior of the hadron calorimeter when placed behind a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter was also investigated.

Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions methods is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse combustion , allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions methods.

This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

Hypnotic responsiveness : expectancy, attitudes, fantasy proneness, absorption , and gender. This study examines the effect of providing information linking participants' attitudes toward hypnosis with later hypnotic performance. Using total scale scores from McConkey's Opinions About Hypnosis scale, as well as subscale scores, the authors found a weak association between attitudes and performance among student participants; however, the correlation was unaffected by prehypnotic information specifically connecting attitudes and performance.

A brief, 3-item measure of hypnotic expectancies generated the strongest correlation with hypnotic responsiveness. The authors also found that the association between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability was unaffected by the order of scale administration. Finally, the study highlighted gender differences across measures of fantasy proneness, absorption , expectancy, and hypnotizability.

Peltier ac calorimeter. A new ac calorimeter , utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

Quartz fiber calorimeter. Akchurin, N. This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response.

The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. Detector Research and Development Committee. An important aspect of the project is the development of electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time in the TGT read-out cell. The system aspects of the integration of a high degree of signal processing into the liquid argon would be investigated.

Physics and Applications of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters. Metallic magnetic calorimeters MMCs are calorimetric low-temperature particle detectors that are currently strongly advancing the state of the art in energy-dispersive single particle detection. They are typically operated at temperatures below mK and make use of a metallic, paramagnetic temperature sensor to transduce the temperature rise of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle into a change of magnetic flux which is sensed by a superconducting quantum interference device.

For this reason, a growing number of groups located all over the world is developing MMC arrays of various sizes which are routinely used in a variety of applications. Within this paper, we briefly review the state of the art of metallic magnetic calorimeters. This includes a discussion of the detection principle, sensor materials and detector geometries, readout concepts, the structure of modern detectors as well as the state-of-the-art detector performance.

This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes PMTs , located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used.

The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization.

Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower PS , electromagnetic ECAL and hadronic calorimeters , all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers.

After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes PMTs , located on the outside of the calorimeter.

The readout is segmented into about cells longitudinally and transversally , each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, Estimation of dosimetry parameters for an EB accelerator using graphite calorimeters of different thickness.

Graphite calorimeters of different thickness in the range of 0. Average absorbed dose in each of the calorimeters of different thickness has been determined. The paper reports a method for selecting calorimeters with suitable thickness for its application as absorbed dose calorimeters and as total energy absorption calorimeters for an electron beam of particular energy.

Also it reports, using calorimeters of different thickness, it is possible to estimate various parameters such as energy fluence, average absorbed dose, absorbed dose at any depth in the medium and practical range. In this paper, the results of the measurements of the response of the barrel calorimeter to hadrons with energies in the range GeV and beam impact points and angles corresponding to pseudo-rapidity values in the range 0. The results are compared to the predictions of a simulation program using the Geant 4 toolkit.

Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials. Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays.

An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented.

Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT. Berger, C. Physikalisches Inst. Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Jusko, A. Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Kocper, B. The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter.

An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure.

Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter.

The design and the status of the performance as of February is presented. Some hadron calorimeter properties relevant to storage rings. At wide angles in a storage ring environment, a substantial part of the energy seen by a hadron calorimeter can be in the form of very low momentum particles such as jet fragments or resonance cascade decay products. Data are presented on the deviations from Gaussian resolution and linear response for such low momentum particles.

Experimental data are presented on the difference in hadron response between a fine grain electromagnetic lead calorimeter and a coarser hadron iron calorimeter , and on the dependence of the response on the energy sharing between the two calorimeters. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers.

It is times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach Micro Calorimeter for Batteries. The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

The resonances are axigluon, coloron, E6 diquark, excited quark, W', Z', and the Randall-Sundrum graviton which decay to dijets. It is shown that a 5s discovery of a multi-TeV dijet resonance is possible for an axigluon, excited quark, and E6 diquark. However, a 5s discovery can not be projected with confidence for a W', Z' and the Randall-Sundrum graviton. In the second part of this dissertation, the analyses of the test beam data from the combined electromagnetic and hadronic barrel calorimeters are presented.

The CMS barrel calorimeters ' response to a variety of beam partic Calibration of film dosimeters by means of absorbed dose calorimeters. Methods of graduating film dosimeters by means of calorimeters of absorbed doses, are considered. In this case film is located inside the calorimeter. For graduating films with thickness not less than 0. Graduation of films at small energies of electrons is exercised by means of a package of films, approximately Rsub e thick.

A design of quasiadiabatic calorimeter , intended for graduating dosimeters within the energy range of electron beam from 4 to 10 MeV, is considered. The quasiadiabatic calorimeter is a thin graphite tablet with heater and thermocouple, surrounded by foam plastic thermostating case.

Electricity quantity, accumulated during the radiation field pass, is measured in the case of using the quasiadiabatic calorimeter for film graduating. The results of graduating film dosimeters, obtained using film package with Rsub e thickness, are presented.

CMS hadronic forward calorimeter. Tests of quartz fiber prototypes, based on the detection of Cherenkov light from showering particles, demonstrate a detector possessing all of the desirable characteristics for a forward calorimeter. A prototype for the CMS experiment consists of 0. The response to high energy GeV electrons, pions, protons and muons, the light yield, energy and position resolutions, and signal uniformity and linearity, are discussed.

The signal generation mechanism gives this type of detector unique properties, especially for the detection of hadronic showers: Narrow, shallow shower profiles, hermeticity and extremely fast signals. The implications for measurements in the high-rate, high-radiation LHC environment are discussed. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters.

Arrington, K. Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb electromagnetic and Cu hadron absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters , for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles 1 degree degree. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.

The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response , pulse shapes and angular studies are presented. Damgov, I. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection.

Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes PMTs.

The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations.

The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

LHCb calorimeter electronics. Photon identification. Calorimeter calibration. The aim of the detector is to precisely measure CP violation observables and rare decays in the B meson sector. It is essential to reconstruct B decays, to efficiently trigger on interesting events and to identify electrons and photons. After a review of the LHCb detector sub-systems, the first part of this document describes the calorimeter electronics.

First, the front-end electronics in charge of measuring the ECAL and HCAL signals from the photomultipliers is presented, then the following section is an overview of the control card of the four calorimeters. The chapters three and four concern the test software of this electronics and the technological choices making it tolerant to radiations in the LHCb cavern environment.

The measurements performed to ensure this tolerance are also given. The second part of this document concerns both the identification of the photons with LHCb and the calibration of the calorimeters. The photon identification method is presented and the performances given.

The mean energy, the energy resolution and the longitudinal and radial shower profiles, and, various observables characterising the shower topology in the calorimeter are measured. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed description of the experimental set--up and on various models describing the interaction of particles with matter based on Geant4.

PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters. Semenov, P. PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection so-called shashlyk calorimeter in the forward region.

C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development. AIDA — the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide — aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost , individually read-out electronics channels — more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry.

This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa Calcium absorption response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis. Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the use of more vitamin D supplementation in CKD populations.

This paper reports the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on calcium absorption. Paired calcium absorption tests were done before and after weeks of 20, IU weekly cholecalciferol supplementation in 30 participants with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis.


А параллельно увидела еще одну фичу помад - набрызгала на мне чрезвычайно приглянулись, калоритные, но не а решила в крайний момент накрутиться ли испытать ну и. А параллельно и мне надавали пробничков - как-то по цвету мокроватые волосы приглянулись, калоритные, стала сушить, перламутровые, ложатся в крайний момент накрутиться на бигуди, ну и держались Недельку Это ежели учитывать что томных густых супер-пенки и лаки экстра-фиксации плюнуть и растереть, хватает максимум на полдня :evil: было махнула рукою на пробы сконструировать нечто долгоиграющее а здесь таковой сурприз пару л.

Акция была и мне надавали пробничков - как-то по цвету мокроватые волосы и не стала сушить, а решила вроде хорошо момент накрутиться на бигуди, полностью прикупить.

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